Heroku to Redshift

This page provides you with instructions on how to extract data from Heroku’s backend and load it into Amazon Redshift. (If this manual process is a bit more involved than you’d prefer, check out Stitch, which can do all the heavy lifting for you in just a few clicks.)

Pulling Data Out of Heroku

In order to get your Heroku data into AWS Redshift, you have to start by extracting it from Heroku’s servers. You can do this using the Heroku API, which is available to all Heroku customers. Full API documentation can be accessed at this link.

A common use case for extracting Heroku data is retrieving server logs or other event logs. There are some API endpoints related to logs but also command-line tools like the logs command that allow you to retrieve this data.

Sample Heroku Data

Here is an example set of commands and responses you might see when interacting with the logs command line tool.

heroku logs --ps router
2012-02-07T09:43:06.123456+00:00 heroku[router]: at=info method=GET path="/stylesheets/dev-center/library.css" host=devcenter.heroku.com fwd="204.204.204.204" dyno=web.5 connect=1ms service=18ms status=200 bytes=13
2012-02-07T09:43:06.123456+00:00 heroku[router]: at=info method=GET path="/articles/bundler" host=devcenter.heroku.com fwd="204.204.204.204" dyno=web.6 connect=1ms service=18ms status=200 bytes=20375

$ heroku logs --source app
2012-02-07T09:45:47.123456+00:00 app[web.1]: Rendered shared/_search.html.erb (1.0ms)
2012-02-07T09:45:47.123456+00:00 app[web.1]: Completed 200 OK in 83ms (Views: 48.7ms | ActiveRecord: 32.2ms)
2012-02-07T09:45:47.123456+00:00 app[worker.1]: [Worker(host:465cf64e-61c8-46d3-b480-362bfd4ecff9 pid:1)] 1 jobs processed at 23.0330 j/s, 0 failed ...
2012-02-07T09:46:01.123456+00:00 app[web.6]: Started GET "/articles/buildpacks" for 4.1.81.209 at 2012-02-07 09:46:01 +0000

$ heroku logs --source app --ps worker
2012-02-07T09:47:59.123456+00:00 app[worker.1]: [Worker(host:260cf64e-61c8-46d3-b480-362bfd4ecff9 pid:1)] Article#record_view_without_delay completed after 0.0221
2012-02-07T09:47:59.123456+00:00 app[worker.1]: [Worker(host:260cf64e-61c8-46d3-b480-362bfd4ecff9 pid:1)] 5 jobs processed at 31.6842 j/s, 0 failed ...

Preparing Heroku Data for Redshift

Here’s the tricky part: you need to map the data that comes out of each Heroku API endpoint or log extraction into a schema that can be inserted into a Redshift database. This means that, for each value in the response, you need to identify a predefined datatype (i.e. INTEGER, DATETIME, etc.) and build a table that can receive them. Depending on your log files, you may also opt to break those up into raw logs and more meaningful metadata or log portions.

The Heroku API documentation can give you a good sense of what fields will be provided by each endpoint, along with their corresponding datatypes.

Inserting Heroku Data into Redshift

Once you have identified all of the columns you will want to insert, you can use the CREATE TABLE statement in Redshift to create a table that can receive all of this data.

With a table built, it may seem like the easiest way to add your data (especially if there isn’t much of it), is to build INSERT statements to add data to your Redshift table row-by-row. If you have any experience with SQL, this will be your gut reaction. But beware! Redshift isn’t optimized for inserting data one row at a time, and if you have any kind of high-volume data being inserted, you would be much better off loading the data into Amazon S3 and then using the COPY command to load it into Redshift.

Other Data Warehouse Options

Redshift is totally awesome, but sometimes you need to start smaller or optimize for different things. In this case, many people choose to get started with Postgres, which is an open source RDBMS that uses nearly identical SQL syntax to Redshift. If you’re interested in seeing the relevant steps for loading this data into Postgres, check out Heroku to Postgres

Easier and Faster Alternatives

If all this sounds a bit overwhelming, don’t be alarmed. If you have all the skills necessary to go through this process, chances are building and maintaining a script like this isn’t a very high-leverage use of your time.

Thankfully, products like Stitch were built to solve this problem automatically. With just a few clicks, Stitch starts extracting your Heroku data via the API, structuring it in a way that is optimized for analysis, and inserting that data into your Amazon Redshift data warehouse.